In The Name of Allah (The God), The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful
This argument is an attempt to philosophically link between a few quotations from a documentary titled as “How the universe works” with English dictionary and The Holy Quran.
Narrator: "There’s a hidden structure, A force that exists within space, A force that connects everything in our universe. This force underpins
our reality (space and time) since the very beginning, And it controls our past, Present and our future, We call this force space-time."
The word underpin
according to dictionary means to give support, Strength, Or a basic structure to something to develop, One of the closest synonyms of this word is the word sustain
, Which means to keep or to maintain something in operation, And one of the attributes of God in Quran is The Sustainer:2:255 Allah - there is no deity except Him, The Ever-Living, The Sustainer of [all] existence . . .
Sean Carroll (Theoretical physicist): space-time is a part of the fundamental architecture
of our universe.Architecture
according to dictionary is the art and practice of designing and making buildings, Which means no architecture or a building can exist without the effort of an experienced designer or a maker, And God is mentioned in Quran as The Designer, The Originator, The Maker, The constructor:6:101 [He is the] Originator of the heavens and the earth . . .
36:81 . . . Certainly. He is the Supreme All-Knowing Creator
51:47 We constructed the heaven with power, And indeed We are expanding it.
(The last verse is the only statement from the 7 th century that tells about the expansion of the universe so clearly, no other scripture from the ancient time hinted to the expansion of the universe)
Narrator: when BigBang happened; the universe suddenly
came to existence.
The word sudden
according to dictionary is the moment when something happens unexpectedly and without a previous warning, And the word happen
itself simply means to take place, To occur or to come to be, Which requires the existence of two different phases; the first one is the previous phase that comes before the moment of the sudden happening, And then a second phase begins at the moment of the sudden happening.
For example we say: “This person had a sudden heart attack”, This means there was a previous time before that sudden moment when this person was not having a heart attack, And then the heart attack happened, And a new phase of suffering begins with the happening of the heart attack.
According to astronomy; BigBang happened suddenly, This means there has to be an initial phase before BigBang, Then BigBang suddenly happened, And this incident initiated a new phase (The existence of our universe).
Based on this; time did not start with BigBang.
The definition of Time according to oxford is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events in the past, Present, And future regarded as a whole, And since BigBang is defined as a sudden event that happened 13. 79 billion years ago, This means time by definition cannot start with BigBang because time should be a continued progress of existence, Which means eternity is the actual timeline of existence, And BigBang is just another event that happened at a certain point in the past of this eternal timeline.
Which is confirmed by Einstein's special relativity (At the speed of light; time cease to flow which makes the traveler at this speed enters an infinite timeline and thus becomes independent from time)
There are three potential fates of the universe and each one of them leads to its death (Considering the fact that dark energy is completely unpredictable concerning the possibility of an infinite expansion), So after the death of the universe it would mean that our universe existed only for a certain period of time, 30 billion years for example, This would mean that our universe was born at BigBang, Existed for 30 billion years, And then died, Since time by definition should be eternal; this means those 30 billion years represent a finite period of time from an eternal timeline that has no beginning and no end.
As mentioned above; the existence of our universe as an architecture requires the existence of its Architect, So The Architect of the universe has to be The Initiator of BigBang 13.79 billion years ago, This means when BigBang happened The Architect of the universe was already existing, And because time by definition is eternal then The Architect of the universe has to be Eternal as well, And God in Quran defines Himself as The Eternal, The Ever-Living, The Everlasting, The First and The Last
:2:255 Allah - there is no deity except Him, The Ever-Living, The Sustainer of [all] existence . . .
57:3 He is The First and The Last, The Ascendant and the Intimate, And He is, Of all things, Knowing.
One may argue that The Architect of our universe could have come to existence at some point of the eternal existence, Which means He doesn’t have to be Eternal, And thus He cannot be Unique, And other gods could come to the eternal existence at some point before Him, But every finite existence requires a necessary existence (See the argument from contingency), God should be The necessary being Who sustains every finite existence, Thus, God should be Eternal, Hence He is Unique
, Exactly as mentioned in Quran:
112:1 Say, "He is Allah, The One and Only.
112:2 Allah, The Eternal Refuge
112:3 He begets not, Nor was He begotten.
112:4 And there is none comparable to Him. "
Narrator: In a fraction of a second, The universe grew from something smaller than the size of an atom to the size of a baseball.
James Bullock (Astrophysicist): at the moment of BigBang, Space-time was an entity that was flying out in all directions.
And this is exactly how Allah describes the beginning of our universe in Holy Quran:
21:30 Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, And We separated them and made from water every living thing?
Allah uses the expression “The heavens and the earth” to deliver the meaning of the Earth and everything above the earth, Or what we call today the universe (or the cosmos), God uses this kind of simple expressions in Quran to describe the physical reality to all kinds of people from the past, Present and the future.
(Physicists today use the same approach to describe physical facts to ordinary people).
Michelle Thaller (Astronomer): The universe at the instant of inflation, Expanded faster than the speed of light, This seems like a violation of all the foundations of physics given the fact that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light through our universe.
Hakeem Oluseyi (Astrophysicist): The rule is, Nothing can move through the universe faster than the speed of light, But the BigBang inflation is the space itself expanded faster than the speed of light, So there’s no violation of physics and there’s no paradox.
This means the laws of physics as we know can only be applied inside our finite universe, This classifies the BigBang inflation as a supernatural incident, Which means God as The Initiator of BigBang should be Supernatural, According to Cambridge dictionary; this means God is beyond scientific understanding, And God is beyond the laws of nature, Which also means that God is absolutely independent from these laws and does not subject to any of them, And our universe cannot contain God.
All these attributes are mentioned in Quran, Allah defines Himself in many verses as The All-Powerful, The Greatest, The Independent, The Self-Sufficient, The Magnificent.
Narrator: During the inflation of the early space-time, Some areas became higher dense than other areas, And these higher dense regions were becoming larger, Which eventually allowed the universe to take shape.
To take shape according to dictionary means to develop a clearer or a more certain form, And develop means to cause something to grow or change into a more advanced form.
Based on dictionary and the causality principle; Nothing can grow or take shape from nothing, We can’t have a shape without an initial cause that can shape something from something else (whether randomly or willingly), Thus, Nothing can be shaped unless there was an initial cause that caused BigBang to happen at the first place, And as a result caused the universe to take shape, So it is impossible for the universe to be developed or “to take shape” without God sustaining and shaping the universe since BigBang.
Michelle Thaller (Astronomer): And all of the sudden, things started to come together.
Things started to come together is the actual result of the action "to arrange" or "to organize", And according to dictionary both of the words mean to put a group of objects in a particular order, Or to make the necessary plans for something to happen, This requires the inevitable existence of a conscious and an intelligent arranger or organizer to prepare those plans and arrangements at the first place, And according to Quran; God is constantly arranging everything happens in the universe:
10:3 Indeed, Your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation] . . .
13:2. . . He arranges [each] matter; He details the signs; that you may - of the meeting with your Lord - be certain.
Narrator: Our modern universe is a complex mosaic
according the dictionary means a pattern or picture produced by arranging together small pieces of different ingredients, Which again implies the need of an experienced arranger or a producer of this mosaic of matter, God.
Narrator: The universe is organized by a cosmic architect, Space-time, It shaped everything, From planets to galaxies.
Space-time itself cannot be God because space-time began to exist at BigBang which makes it a finite existence, and every finite existence requires a necessary existence. Space-time is behaving according to a precise set of physical laws that govern our universe, these laws allowed scientists to identify our universe as a "fine tuned universe" because of the fundamental physical constants, If BigBang happened from nothing then how can “nothing” generates a space-time that behaves like an architect which (inevitably) has to be an intelligent and a skilled architect to be able to produce such a majestic “mosaic of matter”?